2013 Official Coded Variety Trials
Dear ACSC Sugarbeet Grower:
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The 2013 official coded variety performance trials and disease nurseries were planted at 20 sites by American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSC) and included 13 yield trial sites. Four additional disease nurseries were planted by third party cooperators. Thanks are extended to the dedicated Technical Services staff involved in official trial plot care, harvest, and analyses.
Results from the Official Variety Trials sites were good to excellent. Six sites were used for variety approval calculations. One site was abandoned due to variable Rhizoctonia infection (Grand Forks) and a second site was abandoned due to extended periods of standing water (Felton). One yield trial experienced sand syndrome conditions (Crookston). Foliar ratings and yield data are available for Crookston. A second experienced moderate to severe Aphanomyces (Climax, data in table 3). A third site experienced drought and strong root aphid infection (Hendrum). Based upon yield and sugar performance and demonstration plot observations, root aphids likely affected some varieties more than others. Root aphids were observed at 8 of 11 yield sites. ACSC does not run root aphid evaluation nurseries, but seed companies may know tolerance levels of their varieties. These three sites were harvested but not included in variety approval calculations and kept separate for consideration by growers for special growing conditions. Data from these three sites can be found in the file containing individual trial data.
Rhizomania was not observed at any of the harvested sites in 2013. Rhizoctonia was less prevalent in 2013 following two applications of Quadris, an in-furrow treatment at planting and a broadcast treatment at the 6 leaf stage. Revenue calculations in 2013 are based on a hypothetical $53.20 payment (5-year rolling average) at 17.5% sugar and 1.5% SLM and do not consider hauling or production costs.
Fusarium ratings are from two Moorhead sites. The Rhizoctonia data is from one ACSC Moorhead site plus a site at Colorado USDA. The Aphanomyces ratings are from Shakopee and Kindred. The Cercospora data is from Foxhome, MN, and Michigan USDA.
The 2013 data has been combined with the previous years' data, and results are enclosed. The lack of visual rhizomania symptoms prevented categorizing sites based upon infection level, so no tables of moderate to heavy rhizomania are included. Rhizoctonia and Fusarium ratings are optional on first year Roundup Ready® (RR) entries. Results for the individual sites can be found on the internet.
Bolter data is presented in percentage of plants. To estimate the number of bolters per acre, multiply the bolter % times 400. For example, a variety with 0.10 % bolters X 400 = 40 bolters / 40,000 plants per acre.
Aphanomyces specialty approval criteria have been tightened from 4.90 to 4.40 effective this year. In January 2009, the ACSC Seed Committee exempted the currently approved conventional varieties from continued variety testing - 31 conventional varieties are approved for sale in 2014; many of these varieties were not tested since 2008. Conventional trials were discontinued in 2012. Data for conventional varieties tested in 2009-2011 are in Table 7. Data from 2008 conventional trials can be found in Table 6.
More detailed information will be printed later in the Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports (www.sbreb.org).
Click here to open a pdf file with the 2013 Grower Info including:
- List of varieties approved for sale to ACSC growers
- Multi-year performance of RR varieties from ALL SITES
- Performance of RR varieties under Aphanomyces conditions in 2013
- Disease ratings for all nurseries (varieties tested in 2013)
- Trial sites, disease observations and agronomic information from all trial locations
- 2008 performance of conventional and RR varieties
- Multi-year (2009-2011 where available) performance of conventional varieties from ALL SITES
Download 2013 Grower Info in Excel Format
Links to 2013 data only follow:
Roundup Ready and Aphanomyces trials were planted to stand at 4.5 inches. Grand Forks was abandoned due to variable emergence, non-uniform Rhizoctonia infection and root maggot infection. Felton was abandoned due to extended water standing on much of the site. Hillsboro Aphanomyces site was abandoned due to lack of Aphanomyces infection. Two RRV Rhizoctonia nurseries were abandoned due to lack of infection. The Rosemount Cercospora nursery was abandoned due to hail damage.
Plots were planted crosswise (90°) to the cooperators' normal farming operations, where possible. Plot row lengths for all official trials were maintained at 44 feet with about 37 feet harvested. All trials had two or four-row plots planted in four or six replications. Planting was performed with two 12-row vacuum planters, which included a SRES and a Hege. These planters gave good single seed spacing (with proper seed size) which facilitated emergence counts. All seed was treated with Tachigaren and an insecticide. Emergence counts were taken on 44 feet of each plot. Multiple seedlings were counted as a single plant if they emerged less than one inch apart. The stands in all yield trials were refined by removing doubles (multiple seedlings less than 1.5 inch apart) by hand but were not further reduced.
Roundup Powermax with Event and full rates of fungicides were applied using a pickup sprayer driven down the alleys. Hand weeding was used where necessary. All yield trials were treated with Quadris in-furrow (9 oz) and about the 6 leaf stage (14 oz/A broadcast since 2004) for Rhizoctonia control. Proline/Agri Tin, Topsin/Agri Tin, and Headline were used for Cercospora control in 2013. Ground spraying was conducted by ACSC technical staff.
RR varieties with commercial seed were planted in four-row, six replication trials. The RR experimental entries were planted in smaller two-row, four replication trials. Two applications of Roundup were made in the 4-6 (32 oz) and 8-12 (22 oz) leaf stages.
All plot rows were measured for total length after approximately 2.5 feet at each end were removed at the end of August, with skips greater than 60 inches (including short rows) being measured for adjustment purposes. Some sites had 10 feet removed from each end of rows where short rows were observed. Harvest was performed with two modified four-row harvesters (4310 and 4310A John Deere). All harvested beets of each plot were used for yield determination while one sample (approx 25 lbs) for sugar and impurity analysis was obtained from each plot. Quality analysis was performed at the ACSC Technical Services quality lab in Moorhead.
Varieties were planted in disease nurseries in North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan and Colorado to evaluate varieties for disease tolerance.
ACSC adjusts the Cercospora, Aphanomyces, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium nursery data each year to provide a consistent target for variety approval criteria.
Before purchasing seed, please check to make sure the varieties you are buying are on the current approved list. In accordance with the grower contract, the cooperative has the option to refuse to purchase beets of a non-approved variety. If you have questions, please contact the ACSC Technical Services Center or your ACSC Agriculture Department.
William S. Niehaus
Official Trial Manager